Three things I have learnt are:-

__1)__

*Concrete, Pictorial and Abstract (CPA) by J. Bruner*When teaching mathematics to young children, we must begin with concrete materials to let children to have hands-on experiences and understand the concept. Next, children understand by pictorial and diagram, that need a little more effort on learning as children solve problem through visualisation. Finally, abstract, where more critical thinking require and that involve gaining intellectual competency.

__2)__

*Four criteria questions in planning lesson*a) What is it the teacher want the child to learn?

>> set teaching goals.

b) How does the teacher know the child has learn it?

>>constant observation by asking questions and interaction.

c) What if the child cannot understand the concept?

>> go back to basic and simplify the question or teaching methods.

d) What if the child feels that the activity is too simple?

>> prepare more challenging task for the child to do.

All lessons planned must be of age appropriate.

__3)__

*Story books that teach mathematical concept*I enjoyed the two stories shared in the class, "Spaghetti and Meet Balls" and "How Big is a Foot". During my Certificate and Diploma Preschool teaching, none of the lecturer had demonstrated teaching mathematical concept by story telling. After the first book shared by Dr Yeap, I went to the library and I discovered that there are many literature materials teaching different mathematical concepts. Children love listening to story, hence, teaching mathematics concept through story telling will be very interesting; children can make connections and at the same time improve their literacy skills too.

Two questions that I have:-

__I)__

*Differentiated Lessons*I have spoken with my customers from the preschool sectors and few of my fellow course-mates about differentiated lessons written in the lesson plan; everyone tells me that they do not have that written in the lesson plan. Most of the time, they would just carry on the lesson. Some of them said that though they do not write the differentiated activities in their lesson plan but they would reinforce activities or teaching the concept to the struggle learner whenever time permitted. As for the advance children, teacher would give them other activities to occupy them. (as I am not an in-service teacher, so I gathered information by asking friends who are in the industry).

I seriously think that have differentiated activities written in the lesson plan is vital. It helps the teacher to be more efficient when carrying out the lesson; meanwhile, knowing what to scaffold and action to be taken.

__II) Usage of language and explicit instructions__

I have learnt so much about being careful on the usage of language and explicit explanation on teaching concepts and asking questions. Many a times we have used wrong words or phrases, such as "take away", "what is your weight", etc. I am sure neither the in-service teacher or non in-service are aware about the mistake and have been teaching our children. I seriously think that mathematical jargon, rules and instructions should be taught at the Elementary level if not at lease Diploma level.